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Andalusite

Number of visits: Date:8/10/2016

  Andalusite (Andalusite) is a kind of aluminum silicate minerals, it is a manufacturer of spark plugs in the refractory materials and porcelain. Its chemical composition Al2SiO5; Contain the Al2O3 was 63.1%, including SiO2 is 36.9%, sometimes contain manganese, iron and other impurities. Andalusite is a variant called chiastolite. In chiastolite section will present a black cross structure. The cross structure is received in the form of some andalusite caused by carbon and clay. This chiastolite were often made people wear small decorations. Andalusite typically show columnar crystal, its cross section is almost square. Andalusite in 1380 ℃ will be broken down into the rich aluminum, andalusite is a kind of advanced refractory, gorgeous colour and lustre is transparent andalusite can be used as ornaments, is a kind of precious stones. Andalusite in Spain for the first time in 1789, anda Lucia officially released, so words in Europe is known as "anda Lucia stone".

  1 basic data editor

  Crystal morphology: rhombic double cone classes; Crystal column, main simplex: inclined square column m, n, planar double c

  Crystal structure, crystal system and space group: orthogonal crystal system, D122h - Pnnm

  Crystal cell parameters: a0 = 7.78 & Aring, b0 = 7.92 & Aring, c0 = 5.57 & Aring, z = 4

  Powder data: (1) 2.77 5.54 (0.9), 0.9 (0.9)

  Hardness: 6.5 to 7.5

  Weight: 3.13 to 3.16 g/cm3

  Cleavage: incomplete, cleaves completely

  Fracture: produced by cross good cleavage or parting slender fracture

  Color: often are pale or red meat, in blue, green, purple is rare

  White streaks:

  Transparency: transparent

  Sheen: glass luster

  Luminance: no

  Other: sexual brittle

  2 chemical composition The editor

  Chemical composition of Al2 [SiO4] O orthogonal (orthorhombic) crystal system and crystal island structure of silicate minerals. English name from first found it the Spanish city of Andalusia (Andalucia). With cyanite, evening line ishinari homogenous like more. Usually a columnar crystal and cross-sectional nearly square. Some andalusite capture part of the carbon in the process of growth and clay minerals, and within the crystal orientation arrangement, on the transverse section cross, said chiastolite. Aggregate form more radiated or granular, radiated, commonly known as chrysanthemum stone. Pink, rose red, reddish brown or gray, vitreous luster, cylindrical cleavage of medium. Moss hardness is 6.5 ~ 7.5, the proportion of 3.15 ~ 3.16. Andalusite is common in argillaceous rocks and intrusion contact zone, is a typical thermal contact metamorphic minerals. Western hills, Beijing, China is rich in radial andalusite. The rest of the world famous origin have Spain Andalusia tirol, Austria, Brazil's minas gilardino, etc. Andalusite is heated to 1300 ℃ is a mullite, is a high-grade refractory materials, USES with kyanite. Pink or green transparent crystal stones. Chiastolite for foil in pink, grey color has black cross, are often processed into craft supplies.

  Three optical properties editor

  Chip in the colorless, microstrip pink, uneven distribution of color. Biaxial crystal (-). Np = 1.629 1.640, Nm = 1.633 1.644, Np = 1.639 to 1.651. 2 v = - 86 °. Weak pleochroism: Np - reddish, Nm, Ng - light green. Optical axis plane / / (010). Np / / c, Nm/a/b, Ng / / a.

  4 distribution editor

  The development and utilization of China's andalusite, has shown broad prospects. The use of andalusite China starts relatively late, starting in 78 on the contour andalusite mineral resources prospecting and exploration, evaluation, industry demand for it is based on the conditions of use. According to the prospecting effect of andalusite in recent years, this kind of mineral resources is very rich in China, to this kind of mineral formation geological conditions are widespread. Liaoning, jilin, qinghai, gansu, shaanxi, shandong, henan, xinjiang, fujian, hubei, sichuan, Beijing and other provinces and cities have been found. In many parts of the andalusite mineral content is higher in ore deposit, and mineral composition is simple, more reserves in medium above.

  5 occurrence causes editor

  Is typical of the root cause of the low thermal metamorphism minerals, common in contact metamorphic zone of argillaceous rocks, mainly formed in the higher than low geothermal gradient, pressure and temperature conditions.

  Six industrial index editing

  Of andalusite mineral exploitation, on the whole, should focus on economic benefit, from the perspective of all sorts of use request different indicators. At present domestic in this respect, there is no unified regulation, with reference to the land of total bureau of national geological - (1978) no. 1201, no. 3278 (78) smelting word metallurgical department jointly issued: "about the exploration and mining design arrangement disthene construction notice, briefly as follows: 1, andalusite ore grade (mineral) : it is divided into cutoff grade 5%; Ⅰ grade 8% or higher, Ⅱ grade 5 ~ 8%.

  2, recoverable thickness, the thickness of the clip stone out for 1 meter.

  7 ore properties editor

  Mineral composition of the ore

  Andalusite most porphyroblast structure. Spot intracrystalline carbon, quartz, mica, metal mineral, garnet, tourmaline, etc. Some of the associated minerals such as garnet, carbon by dressing, such as recycling.

  Objective mineral characteristics of the mineral

  General characteristics: andalusite belong to orthorhombic system, crystal along the C axis is rhombic prism shape. Due to the cylindrical Angle is about 89 ℃, thus four square shape looks like. Aggregate radiated, granular, visible penetration twin. Cylinder (110) completely. Color is gray, yellow, red, purple, green and brown. Hardness is 6.9 ~ 7.4. The proportion of 3.12 ~ 3.19. Chip colorless, sometimes with a slight pink hue, color distribution is often not even on the same one-sided, shades, punctate. Parallel or symmetric extinction, with weak pleochroism, Npi reddish (1.629 ~ 1.639), the Nm light green (1.633 ~ 1.639), Ng light green (1.637 ~ 1.637). Moderate the positive real; (-) 2 v = 80 ~ 86 °. Transverse section nearly square, sometimes visible two groups nearly orthogonal cleavage. In the red stone, sometimes saw a black carbonaceous inclusions (chiastolite) can be said. Advantage of the characteristics of andalusite with more color to distinguish between it and the silicon line stone.

  No electric magnetic surface performance: andalusite itself, but its surface properties and determines the key type and degree of fracture surface fracture, which related to its crystal chemistry process. It will produce high-energy crystal was broken combination advantage of cationic Al3 +, Fe2 +, etc. Andalusite surface hydrophilic, broken after its partially there is metal cation. Zero electric point PH 7.2, generally higher than silicate broken objects. Andalusite mineral from Al - O and Si - O keys. Lead the oxygen body PH = 9, a zero isoelectric point. And quartz at PH = 2 or slightly larger than 2, in zero electric point. Which can be thought of alumina silicate minerals of zero electric point between 2 ~ 9, this property is beneficial to their separation purification.

  Chemical composition: andalusite is anhydrous silicate, which belongs to disthene clan. The chemical formula for SiO2, Al2O3 or Al2O [SiO4]. Theory of chemical composition: 63.1% Al2O3, SiO2 36.9%, but due to reasons such as metallogenic crystallization, alteration, weathering, lattice often contain some impurities such as Ag, Fe, Ti, the chemical analysis results deviate from the theoretical value.

  8 feature editing process

  Industrial use of andalusite, mainly take the characteristics of high temperature resistance. Under ordinary conditions of andalusite after heated to 1350 ℃, start into parallel to the original crystal acicular mullite. Mullite crystal is the only stable aluminum silicate under high temperature, in the form of its theoretical conversion rate of 87.64%.

  Andalusite in heating into the process of mullite, can form a good network of mullite volume expansion of about 4%. This is a kind of irreversible crystal transformation, once the transformation, has higher fireproof performance, can reach more than 1800 ℃, refractoriness and quench heat resistance, mechanical strength, thermal shock is strong, strong slag resistance, high load conversion point and high chemical stability (even not soluble in hydrofluoric acid) and strong resistance to chemical corrosion.

  9 main use editor

  In view of andalusite with physical and chemical properties, is one of the known high quality refractory materials. It except for smelting industry senior refractories, technical ceramics industrial raw materials, can also be silicon smelting high strength lightweight aluminum alloy, metal fiber and supersonic aircraft and spacecraft oriented. It is reported that foreign is the use of rich aluminum andalusite for coal gasification and making radome. Part of crystallization of good, bright color can also be making crafts and decorations. Continues to expand its application field.

  Production of monolithic refractories

  The metallurgical processes such as to improve the high temperature operation has a special benefit. Monolithic refractories used directly, without burning can save fuel energy, and its volume stability at high temperature, has a great influence on its service life. Practice, if the ratio of burn and plastic injection according to use, can contain a certain amount of clay and inorganic binder, thus causing monolithic refractories in the process of high temperature and cooling shrinkage, cracks and peeling, shorten the service life of refractory material. In order to control and reduce the rate of refractory products at high temperature for a long time under the contract, if add quantitative andalusite in ingredients, using the expansion and stable characteristics, can eliminate the phenomenon of amorphous material closed above narrow, prolong the service life of the material can be up to five years.

  Refractory brick

  Andalusite is made after calcining profiles and can be used for hot blast stove, hot wind tower, again hyped and other key parts, also can be used for all sorts of auxiliary pouring and operating equipment, also can make the kiln facilities, high temperature aluminum silicate insulation, aluminum casting mould material. Use refractory fibre lining made of andalusite, than fire clay or light brick lining can be 30 ~ 50% energy saving. Use of andalusite brick can reduce fuel consumption, increasing the stability, also can save more than 40% of the general the consumption of refractory material.

  Production of silicon aluminium alloy, alumina and aluminum metal materials: because of andalusite Al2O3 content high, iron, titanium and calcium oxide, such as low content of impurities, used in the production of alumina 60% silicon aluminum alloy, can need not alumina, can simplify the production process and improve production efficiency.

  Starting in the seventy s, andalusite is widely paid great attention in industrial production in our country, its application fields are also expanding rapidly. Andalusite formed after calcination mullite has high refractoriness, chemical stability and mechanical strength, so in metallurgy, building materials and other industrial department is widely used. Table 3 lists the main purpose of the andalusite minerals.

  10 use method editor

  Domestic started the exploration work of andalusite in 1978, and successively andalusite mineral processing laboratory work, explore the characteristics of the work is: not according to the requirement of refractory products, the composition of particle size of andalusite concentrate, skeleton (coarse fine particle packing) considering the classification process. Is using magnetic separation, flotation; Magnetic separation - gravity separation, flotation and other joint don't process. Undressed ore containing 10-18%, andalusite andalusite concentrate containing Al2O3 acquired 55-57%, andalusite mineral recovery rate is about 60%. The mineral processing equipment are in the mid - 80 production equipment at home. South Africa is one of the world's largest abroad andalusite manufacture and exporter.

  South Africa around the sorting process is basically the same, in the process adopts heavy medium cyclone preconcentration, then magnetic separation is used to control, the production of andalusite effective separation method in South Africa, will eventually get inclusive of our 58% Al2O3 acuity, Fe2O3 andalusite concentrate of 0.9% or less.

  Andalusite is fine grained disseminated in France. Grinding ore to 1.6 mm first ruled out by magnetic separation method, magnetic material enrichment of andalusite, and again with heavy medium cyclone two purification, andalusite concentrate can be obtained with Al2O358 %, Fe2O31. 0%.

  Firms in 1987, France, Switzerland first new flotation process, the PH < 3.5, the pulp density of 15 ~ 30%, using alkyl sulfonate as collector to andalusite ore, so as to choose the highest standards of andalusite concentrate - level KF, including Al2O360 %, Fe2O30. 6%, the law in 1989, the European patent application.

  11 quality standard editor

  Useful elements and associated elements. The influence of the raw material

  Although with disthene andalusite, silicon wire of the same chemical formula, but its lattice often contain iron oxide and manganese oxide, gray and yellow color; Such as manganese content variation in dark green, called manganese andalusite. Andalusite crystal structure transition is disthene to a silicon line stone; Its existence in the argillaceous and carbon - argillaceous shale, and quartz, garnet, corundum, disthene, mica, limonite, manganese ore, rutile, pyrite and other mineral symbiosis. According to the ore and mineral composition, andalusite schist and hornfels divides into two types. Schist type andalusite ore genesis of andalusite with garnet and staurolite and quartz phenocryst piece make; Substrate is mainly composed of mica, granular quartz sand and carbon, clay, iron content. Ore plate shaped and argillaceous lamellar structure. Hornfels andalusite ore is biotite, quartz diorite hydrothermalism metamorphism; Andalusite and chlorite, mica, carbonaceous phenocryst. Substrate by white mica, quartz, sericite, black mica, plagioclase, the argillaceous rock debris collection, weak magnetism. Followed by a small amount of monomer quartz, feldspar, tourmaline, zircon, rutile, apatite, limonite and so on. Andalusite crystals inside often contain more carbon, argillaceous become chiastolite inclusions, and make the andalusite color black. In view of this, for larger granularity of andalusite occurrence of andalusite ore, because single andalusite mineral surface adhesion by the relative weight of monomer andalusite impurities, and therefore easy to get with high Al2O3 andalusite concentrate products. Conversely, such as andalusite occurrence particle size small, must be fine grinding, remove impurities of mineral part weight, surface adhesion, can obtain qualified concentrate in the end. Therefore, andalusite ore genesis of andalusite crystals size but don't choose ease and flow structure is very important factor. Gangue mineral occurrence state and influence process and ore dressing indexes of another important factor. Feldspar, muddy clay mineral, quartz and limonite, biotite mutual cementation, into a state of cuttings, and weak magnetism, can make magnetic separation shall be chosen. Cuttings of Fe2O3 composition mainly biotite into, black mica content in cuttings is more, than the magnetization coefficient is larger, the more susceptible to magnetic elected.

  The national standard

  YB4032-91 industry standard of the People's Republic of China: (1) this standard specifies the classification of andalusite concentrate, code name, brand, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, packaging and quality certificate. This standard applies to the concentration of andalusite concentrate, for senior refractories, technical ceramics and silicon aluminum alloy etc. (2) reference standard: GB2007 bulk minerals sampling, sample preparation general principles; GB5689 metallurgy minerals packing, marking and general provisions of the quality certificate; GB6900 clay, high aluminum refractory chemical analysis method; GB7322 refractory refractory degree test method; GB8923.7 dense refractory castable line test method for thermal expansion. (3) classification, code, brand: andalusite concentrate - to "red" and "pure" two Chinese phonetic alphabet "capital" "HJ" as the code; According to the content of Al2O3 into andalusite concentrate HJ - 58, HJ - 55, HJ - 52 three grades. (4) technical requirements: the product particle size decided by both parties of supply and demand; Products shall not be mixed with foreign inclusions; Product physical and chemical indicators.

  The development trend of 12 editor

  Earth concentrated andalusite reserves in South Africa, France and China. Spain, Portugal, Russia, Ghana, South Korea, the United States of California and north Carolina have some reserves. World is available for commercial export of andalusite production basic limited to South Africa, the annual output of about 250000 tons. About half of South African products export to Europe. French damm lake company has a mine, annual output of 65000 tons, not long ago, took over the lake he LeiGong pillars, andalusite refractories and cullinan mineral three companies. He ray/concessions in boggs fett, annual production capacity of 60000 tons. Product has two levels: 1 and 3 ~ 4 mm to 8 mm, high product Al2O3 content was 59%, all used for refractory material. Exports to the United States, Japan, Australia and Europe. Before the cullinan business location is in Leiden, annual production capacity of 50000 tons, the product brand for K55 and K57P, containing Al2O3 were 55% and 57% respectively. Raw materials are exported to Europe and the far east, mainly sent to the UK, Germany, Spain and Italy. It is located in the grout, the Ann ande, the ruffle rafa's products for export, main markets are Japan, Europe and the United States.

  'angelo, anwar group, a subsidiary of lino company in South Africa's largest a andalusite ore, the mine is located in MuPu Ma Lange Barbara in northern Kim than near the production of production capacity of 120000 tons, including 6 ~ 70000 tons of export, 85% from Richards bay shipment, the remaining bagging from du Ben. The latter is about 90% as abrasive products sold. About 50000 tons each year to the domestic market, much of the consumer to steel used for refractory material. Sales is worldwide, mostly in eastern Europe and southeast Asian countries. Mines and processing is not large, the number of all kinds of special level products production by the plant.

  Hull Nick exploration company with hogan's eagle andalusite company will start andalusite business assets. The move will make the hull Nick annual production capacity of 36000 tons, production site in Peters's burgers, area. In addition, the hull Nick continues development of grout, andalusite in annual production capacity of 20000 tons. French damm lake group of open pit mine is located in in tenny gro meir, for processing 600000 tons of andalusite ore. An annual output of 70000 tons of ore concentrate 6.5 ~. Product supply refractory industry, the brand is "Kerphalite", have different content of Al2O3 grades.

  China in henan and shandong annual output of about 8000 tons of andalusite, of which 5500 tons of export. China's mineral Fe2O3 content is higher, at about 1.5%. Fob xingang at roughly $300 / ton. Now affect export cost is the main reason of the no form of mass production.

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